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中美传统节日文化差异(英语商务毕业论文)
文章来源:www.dj-on-line.com   发布者:学生毕业作品网站   发布时间:2015-09-24 10:50:44   阅读:11635

Abstract

Traditional festival is the product of a nation's historical development, both in the long history of over 5,000 years of Chinese origin or in the United States, the traditional festival of freshmen have shown similarities, most traditional festivals are derived from the people in agriculture production and life expectation of the harvest, the gods of heaven and earth and nature worship, as well as pay homage to historical figures and so on. Traditional festivals in the long-term evolution and development, has become an integral part of national culture through traditional festivals reflect cultural characteristics and national spirit of a nation. Meanwhile Chinese culture and USA countries there is a difference in all aspects of traditional culture festival is an important one, and USA cultural festivals also have their own different characteristics. Profound cultural festival, national holiday custom is conventional, with their distinctive national characteristics and colorful manifestations. This article from the two countries have similar cultural connotations traditional festival of festivals, discusses differences in the origin of these traditional festivals, customs and other aspects of the festival, and analyze the reasons for these differences, which reflects the difference between the two traditional festival culture. Another paper also discusses the merging of traditional festivals in the West.

Key words:China; USA; traditional festivals; cultural differences

摘 要

传统节日是一个民族发展的历史产物,无论是在有着五千多年悠长历史的中国还是在新生的美国,传统节日的起源都显示出相通之处,大多数传统节日都源自于人们在农业生产生活中对丰收的期盼、对天地神灵和自然的崇拜、以及对历史人物的祭奠等等。传统节日在长期的演变和发展中,已经成为民族文化不可或缺的一部分,透过传统节日可以反映一个民族的文化特色和民族精神。同时中国和西方国家的文化存在着各个方面的差异,传统节日文化是其中复要的一项,而中西节日文化也有着各自不同的特点。节日文化博大精深,各国的节日风俗是约定俗成的,有着各自鲜明的民族特色和丰富多彩的表现形式。本文从两国传统节日中有着相似文化内涵的节日出发,探讨这些传统节日在起源、节日习俗等方面的差异,并分析产生这些差异的原因,从而折射出两国传统节日文化的差异。另外本文也探讨了中西方传统节日的相互融合。

关键词:中国;美国;传统节日; 文化差异
Contents

Abstract I
摘 要 II
1.Introduction 1
2. Differences between a traditional festival of USA origin and formation 2
3. Differences in the USA tradition of holiday customs 4
3.1 China's major traditional festivals customs 4
3.2 Major USA Traditional Festivals 6
4.Interacting with each other in the West festival 9
5.Conclusions 11
Bibliography: 12
Acknowledgement 13

1.Introduction


Refers to the year the festival has been given a special social and cultural significance, and interspersed between the daily life of the day, is a concentrated expression of the colorful life of the people, is a summary of the various regions, ethnic groups, the country's political, economic, cultural, religious and extension. Human activities in the festival, to retain the national culture of the finest and most representative side. They reflect the habits, morality and religious ideas of national tradition, is entrusted with the vision of the entire nation, is thousands of years long years of happy feast. Traditional festivals are an integral part of a national or ethnic history and culture. In the West have their own traditional festivals, these festivals have in common, but more their own characteristics.
Holiday custom style with charming and unique style to show in front of people, from different angles and sides, reflecting the history of the nation and social life style, with distinctive national characteristics and strong local flavor. It involves both the formation of a national history and accumulated personality, psychology, religion, ideas, ways of thinking, moral, aesthetic and cultural values of many ethnic connotation of the deep structure, is pregnant and raise long-term national spirit in a particular social soil the results and the carrier, is one of the most prominent form of national survival, the most unique show. Holiday customs plain easy to see, easy performance, and is deeply embedded in the national spirit under various appearances. Therefore, the comparison of the similarities and differences between Chinese and American traditional festivals can, through its representation, reveal the character of the two nations, psychological, cultural values and national spirit.

 

2.Differences between a traditional festival of USA origin and formation


Follow the traditional festival originated from the formation to the decline of this nature. As countries have different national conditions, the origin and formation of its traditional festivals there is a big difference. China's major traditional festivals are converted from the old season, with a strong agriculture color, and the origins of USA traditional festivals are with a strong religious overtones.
China's major traditional festivals are converted from the old season, with a strong agriculture color.
China has long been a feudal agricultural society and the natural self-sufficient economy, which has a strong agricultural tradition festival of color, including the social characteristics of farming civilization, mainly converted from the old season. In ancient China, a long-term oriented agriculture, agricultural technology and productivity in the underdeveloped, attaches great importance to the impact of climate on crops. China's feudal society stretches for thousands of years, "farming men and women weave" a long history of farming life, agricultural production conditions, crop growth has been the psychological mood of the people "barometer." Therefore, the traditional Chinese lunar festivals are in accordance with seasonal produce on the people through these slack when the harvest festivities, worship the moon and stars to celebrate the bumper harvest, pray for good weather for the coming year. In the spring planting, summer, autumn, winter provisions of the complex process of understanding the timing of natural law, summed seasons twenty-four solar terms, formed mainly of traditional holiday festival. Hard-working Chinese people in order to better survive, we must develop agriculture and agricultural development is inseparable from the weather care. An old saying "spring precious as oil," "Qingming busy kinds of wheat, Guyu seed field." In ancient times, the Chinese New Year, Ching Ming Festival (March, said the ancient festival) are all important agricultural festivals.
Thus, due to China's long-term self-sufficiency in agricultural society of feudal rule and the natural economy, and would therefore its traditional festival of course inevitably maintain its agriculture color. China's major traditional festivals, related to China as its efforts to throttle the agricultural community calendar and Chinese calendar, which is closely related to the provisions, with a strong agriculture color.
Origins of USA and Chinese traditional festivals are compared with a strong religious overtones.
Halloween (Memorial Church of USA culture as a result of long-term influence of Christianity, the traditional festival originated with a strong religious overtones, such as Valentine's Day (Memorial Christian martyrs named Zivadin), Easter (Christian commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus) All Saints ), Christmas (Christian commemoration of the birth of Jesus), the origin of these festivals are mostly associated with religion. Of course, there are also USA festivals and agriculture-related festivals, but the history of their agrarian inferior to China's long holiday.
In the West, the early human society festivals also have hope for a good harvest in nature. Later, due to the rise of Christianity and other religions and popularity, due to the industrial society of commodity economy replaced the agricultural economy, the worship of the traditional harvest festival of land begging practices gradually been forgotten, replaced by a variety of religious consciousness derived from the festival. USA countries, more than initially dominated by livestock, although later agricultural, industrial and commercial development has a large, but most did agriculture become founding of the country, so people emphasis on seasonal climate is less than China, most of them focus on Christianity. While traditional festivals in USA countries in a period of origin on with religious overtones, and continue to be strengthened in the subsequent development process.

 


3.Differences in the USA tradition of holiday customs


Holiday customs are customs and way to celebrate the holidays appear. Each festival has its own some unique celebrations, which are the same as in the West. But in the West holiday custom, but very different, which can also detect differences Chinese and USA cultures. China and USA countries on the holiday customs have a very significant difference, it is the custom of Chinese traditional festival food and drink diet mainly the theme of traditional festivals and customs of the USA countries is mainly fun theme.
3.1 China's major traditional festivals customs
Differences in national traditions festivals are closely related to differences in lifestyle patterns and survival of the nation, or by the many ethnic and cultural traits have the same cultural system posed.
China mainly due to the age of solar terms festivals, auspicious happiness pray for themselves, holiday customs to eat and drink as the theme, the main reason is that the Chinese people's pursuit of health and longevity of life for the purpose, and through diet to achieve.
China's traditional festivals, basically feudal society formed and handed down, the inevitable name of feudal imprint: each holiday with all the family, the family-centered activities. Festival, young people must worship the elderly, the family reunion dinner to eat, want the whole family to celebrate. Even stopping each other Happy New Year Spring Festival, also basically between relatives. Carnival group of strangers together, it is not unthinkable. In addition, another notable feature is that embodies the Chinese Festival Chinese food culture and customs. Each festival has a different specialty food requirements in order to distinguish it from other festivals. Such as eating dumplings, dumplings, moon cake and so on. Chinese festival embodies the Chinese people's virtues and habits, care for the young, mutual affection and Syria, is a fine tradition of our nation, should continue to develop, so people always adhere to the good practices of these Chinese festival, good atmosphere. Even people who liked the foreign section, and no one wants to abandon the Chinese festival.
Chinese New Year in the annual lunar month, intended to put forward to the arrival of the Chinese New Year, Vientiane recovery, vegetation updates, start a new round of planting and harvesting seasons. New Year will bring vibrant, hopeful happiness, so people will be full again this time of joy, singing and dancing to greet the day. According to the New Year's habit Han, people will stick paper cutting, couplets, paste the word blessing, candles, point stir, firecrackers, stay up to New Year's, New Year, relatives, send annual ceremony, and so on graves. During the festival, generally eat rice cakes, dumplings, rice balls, fried egg, large meatballs, whole fish, the most complete documentation of the hottest and most professional class resources, library caught wine, blessing orange, apple, peanuts, candy based. This is the year people are most relaxed day, enjoying the fruits of labor in the past year and look forward to the coming year and better development.
The Dragon Boat Festival is an important festival in the summer, the time of the fifth lunar month, the main festival food is dumplings. Dragon Boat Festival and dumplings and agricultural produce solar terms are closely linked. "Dragon Boat Festival" initially seems to be the southern ancient Baiyue own totem worship - Dragon Festival, and later to commemorate the patriotic poet Qu Yuan and together, they will be more profound implication of the totem worship and ancestor worship combine The cultural connotation.
Mid-Autumn Festival with four traditional Spring Festival, Qingming Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival together, known as China's, the time for the Lunar August 15, the main food is moon cake festival. Autumn is the harvest season, grain fragrance, fruit garden, people joyfully harvest it all, while on nature gratitude, while the moon is both an outstanding representative of nature, but also the Chinese people projected throttle important seasonal basis, so there will be a festival on the Zhou Dynasty, thanks to monthly activities. To the Sui and Tang Dynasties, people sacrifice month, on the occasion of worship on the Mid-Autumn Moon gradually discovered the biggest, roundest, brightest, began full moon, Wan Yue, formed a full moon, the Mid-Autumn Harvest for the main customs. Moon cake has a special meaning, one expression of gratitude for nature; the second is a circular cake symbolizes reunion, family reunion sustenance of people living with the desire to pray for happiness.
3.2 Major USA Traditional Festivals
Mainly from USA religious festival and related events, the memory of God, seeking his blessing, holiday customs in order to play the theme, the main reason is the West's pursuit of a healthy and happy life for the purpose, and by religious and recreational activities to achieve, It is to show people more interactive, crowd participation, carnival nature, warm emotional vent resistance, self-centered, respect for individuation, Thanksgiving, Christmas, Valentine's Day has been true ...... . This section of the closed nature of China, familial opposite. It broke the feudal closed form, without the upper and lower, rating bondage between the elderly and the young, reflecting the equality of all, freedom of self-expression features. In terms of food, there is no strict requirement that the different sections do not eat what's on.
Chinese New Year and Christmas corresponds to USA countries. Christmas commemorates the birth of Jesus organized the festival. After a certain period of development, and gradually evolved into a major festival of Christmas in USA countries universal and the same focus as the Chinese New Year family reunion, festive. Christmas has a grand celebration, especially the evening of December 24, Christmas Eve, Christians into the church for Mass, singing Christmas songs, chanting hymns, etc., in order to celebrate the birth of Jesus, the Christmas arrival. The children are looking forward to Santa Claus brought candy, toys and other gifts, and they will give Santa some supper prepared foods. In addition to the celebration of Christmas banquet is essential for family reunion at Christmas parties, similar to China's "New Year." Banquet food variety, as much of the richness of Chinese Spring Festival. After the banquet around the symbol of good luck people will be happy, enjoy eternal life singing and dancing Christmas tree.
Easter is the Christian commemoration of Jesus' Resurrection "and set up the festival, second only to Christmas in USA countries is the second largest festival, a time for the first full moon after the vernal equinox year Sunday, in that the Gregorian calendar in April. In its practices, both religious, but also have a special holiday foods - eggs. Because Easter is a church designed to commemorate Jesus, and therefore has religious holiday eve or day of commemoration, not only to celebrate mass in the church, and some cities also held a grand religious procession. Corresponding to this is to eat eggs and Egg Roll. This is the Dragon Boat Festival to eat dumplings and dragon boat racing activities are very similar, and, from its hold reason, the Dragon Boat Festival to commemorate Qu Yuan is now general, and Easter to commemorate Jesus.
Thanksgiving is America's oldest festival unique, time is the last Thursday of November, the main festival foods such as turkey and pumpkin pie. These foods as Thanksgiving holiday food is innate, but also always indispensable. Because they not only make people recall the hardships ancestry, thank God grace, but also to inspire people today to further create a happier life.
Seen from the above, the festival and the festival is the highlight of eating practices of human life, although in the West due to differences in geography, history, culture, ideology, etc. caused some differences in their holiday Sisu, but it is this that makes the human colorful life, that makes each have to attract each other, respect each other's unique charm. In this sense, blindly seeking the same, not only will lose the true, but also tends to make human life tedious.
However, the same is "Thanksgiving" holiday, in the West is very different manifestations. Chinese people in the Mid-Autumn Festival will hidden in the heart of nature and express gratitude for their loved ones through poetry tactful way, moon cake gift is one manifestation of it. Americans spent Thanksgiving when often through the party, in the form of gathering, expressing the inner feelings through imaginative, passionate manifestations. Therefore, the so-called "loved ones during the festive season," "Nung, moon and new moon," so emotional, traditional festivals in the West, it is difficult to appreciate the.


4.Interacting with each other in the West festival


By contrast than traditional festival of Chinese and USA, you can see both the natural environment and from different cultural backgrounds, there are obvious differences. But the two are not "interfere with each other", but has a lot of natural things in common. USA festival as a national carrier of culture, once and continues to play an active role in the culture. Specific view, the cultural connotation of Chinese and USA heritage festivals are invariably load, mainly around two aspects. First, that the two festivals and cultural yearning and love for the good life. Such as the USA Christmas, people heard the maximum sentence is, "Merry Christmas"; while in China's Spring Festival, people will see is the "Gods Jubilee" the speech. Second, is the heritage of care for the young, admired historical figures Passing civilization of love and loyalty. China has the Chung Yeung Festival for the Elderly, and the West is also Father's Day, Mother's Day; love of people loyal to the West and promising to set up a Valentine's Day, while China has Cowherd Magpie Bridge Tanabata festival. Because of these natural similarities between the current era and USA economic and cultural exchanges increasingly on the occasion, the two festivals each other frequently and cultural infiltration, influence each other, you have a solid foundation and a reliable premise. "In recent years, more and more people, especially young people pay attention to the foreign section, especially Christmas, while the local Chinese New Year festival in particular interest is fading, which of course did not miss any opportunity to make money with the business, the hype about the more young people to pursue fashion and are closely linked. But fundamentally, it reflects the country by the outside world, are increasingly integrated into the international community, it should be said is a sign of progress, understandable. Chinese people, especially young people gradually fade in Chinese New Year at the same time, foreign goodwill and interest of the Chinese New Year has become increasingly strong. Now the world is increasingly accepted by Chinese New Year, the global nature of this traditional festival is increasingly evident in the pace of economic globalization is accelerating today, China not seclusion in their own traditional culture to flourish, we must also learn from the best part of USA culture for my own use. At present, the rapid development of China's economic and social, economic and cultural exchanges have become increasingly frequent in the West, Chinese traditional culture began to go abroad, to show the world its unique charm, the Chinese people have begun to understand the charm of USA culture. In USA culture of mutual penetration, merging, which are two cultural trend of the times, maintain the vitality of a great boon.
5.Conclusions


Like other species of the world, humans also have different shape and temperament. Both are also common among the different ethnic personality, and personality in which to play an important role, have the charm and personality of the value of existence, "the more, the more the nation is the world." China and the US have different geographical, historical origins and cultural traditions, which doomed them back and the development of different purposes. But through the Sino-US cultural differences festival, we have insight into the inner soul of these two cultures and systems derived therefrom, ethical, aesthetic value, such as the concept of the nation, by comparison with the analysis can deepen mutual understanding, this open today competition and cooperation in the world to better enhance communication and exchange.

Bibliography:


[1] 高占祥. 论节日文化[M ]. 北京:文化艺术出版社, 1991: 59. 
[2] 张承平,万伟珊. 文化的普适与包容[ J ]. 长沙电力学院学报(社科版) , 2002 (17) : 64269. 
[3] DAV IS L. Cross2Cultural Communication in Action [M ]. Beijing:Beijing Foreign Language Teaching & Research Press, 2001: 17218. 
[4] 甜世安,魏水利. 中美节庆文化的表征与内涵分析及其启示[J]. 西北大学学报(哲学社会科学版) , 2007 (37) : 93297.
[5]廖冬梅;节日的教育功能探析[D];西南大学;2006年
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Acknowledgement


    In occasion of the completion of the paper, I would first like to mentor von card pear extend my sincere respect. In the thesis writing process, giving me a lot of help and care.
    Thanks also to our college instructor and teacher, precisely because of their preaching, Tuition, FAQ, so I learned expertise and learn from them how to scholarly knowledge, how people skills. I would also like to thank my alma mater Guangxi College of Education, she gave me a good learning environment and living environment, makes my life more colorful, leaving a brilliant stroke of my life.
Also, my heartfelt thanks to my classmate classmates in my thesis writing, discuss with them is that I had a productive session, we should also thank them for their selfless help and support to me, and I once again grateful.
    Finally, I would like my dearest family and friends to express my deep gratitude, they have given me love, understanding and support is my motivation to continue moving forward.
    School endless, tomorrow will be another beginning of my life-long learning!

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